AMENDER: Seawater Mediated Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal

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OPEN 2021
Los Angeles, California
Project Term:
06/24/2022 - 06/23/2025

Critical Need:

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (CDR) is needed to mitigate climate change, but using classical sorbents and solvents to decrease the diffuse CO2 that exists at dilute concentrations in the atmosphere is unfeasible. This is because of the (1) enormous energy demands, (2) substantial costs, and (3) uncertainty associated with the risk of release of captured CO2 from geological reservoirs and the need for infrastructure to convey captured CO2 to utilization or storage sites.

Project Innovation + Advantages:

Developed by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), the AMENDER project presents a transformative approach for CDR that exploits the ocean-atmosphere equilibrium of CO2 and enormous abundance of divalent alkaline cations in seawater. These attributes are leveraged electrochemically by flowing seawater through mechanically regenerable electrode surfaces. The minerals formed trap CO2 durably in dissolved and/or solid forms. The decarbonated seawater is then capable of absorbing more atmospheric CO2. Water’s alkalization also generates hydrogen (H2), a clean fuel. UCLA’s AMENDER system could enable a levelized cost of removal of <$100 per tonne of CO2 mineralized.

Potential Impact:

The AMENDER process is a scale-relevant (potential to abate >1 Gt of CO2 annually), cost effective pathway (levelized net cost ≤$75 per t) for diffuse CDR that.


Immobilizes CO2 in the form of mineral carbonates and aqueous species that will remain stable for millions of years.


Requires only electrical energy for powering all unit operations (i.e., ensures process intensification by renewable energy integration).


Results in the co-production of H2, a clean fuel that helps offset the process cost.


ARPA-E Program Director:
Dr. Douglas Wicks
Project Contact:
Dr. Gaurav Sant
Press and General Inquiries Email:
Project Contact Email:

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